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大山倍达

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发表于 2013-11-26 22:36:50 |显示全部楼层
大山倍达(1923年7月27日-1994年4月26日)是一位扬名国际的日本空手道家,同时也是极真会馆的创始人兼初代馆长。
生平[编辑]
关于大山倍达的童年,至今仍有些许争议。韩国人主张大山是出生于韩国,但也有人主张是出生于日本东京。童年时期大山曾被送到他姐姐位于中国东北的农场生活,而大山在九岁时开始向一名在农场工作的农人学习武术。


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发表于 2013-11-26 22:37:33 |显示全部楼层
二次大战结束之后,大山倍达开始学习松涛流空手道与各式各样其他的武术,并且隐身于日本的山区一个人独自锻炼。据说大山倍达曾经剃掉自己一边的眉毛,好让自己无法离开山里,借此认真修行。大山倍达前后在山里待了14个月,最后因为没有人继续提供粮食给他而下山。
几个月之后,大山倍达赢得全日本空手道大会的冠军,但是他对于自己无法完成当初所设立,要于山里修行三年的目标而感到不满。所以他又再次的进到山里修行,这次修行的时间共有18个月。虽然很多大山倍达的支持者不断的重复大山倍达一个人隐居于山林里修行的故事,但是大山倍达本人却一直没有出面证实故事的真实性。之后大山倍达进入东京的拓殖大学就读,并且于这段时间追随松涛流创始人船越义珍学习松涛流空手道。
1952年,大山倍达与柔道四段的远藤辛吉一同前往美国,向许多的美国摔角手挑战。并且于美国各地表演空手道,深厚的功力更为他赢得神手的称号。传闻大山倍达的手力非常大,可以用手指将日本的10元硬币捏扁。而在30岁的全盛时期,大山倍达的身高为175cm,体重有85公斤,胸围则有132cm。
1953年,大山倍达开设一间属于自己的道馆-大山道馆,并且于这段时间于日本各地旅行,验证自己的空手道哲学。期间他多次赤手空拳的将猛牛给打死。1956年,大山倍达将道场搬迁到一间学校的体育馆内。而同时大山也开始整理自己的空手道系统,最后发展出一套以全接触打击为基础的空手道系统,大山将之命名为极真。在练习的过程当中常常有门生受伤,但是仍有相当多的门生请求入门。而现今空手道界有许多以极真会为基础发展出的空手道组织或联盟,多半都是在这段期间之内接触极真空手的。
1964年,大山倍达将道场搬迁至现今的极真会总本部大楼。之后大山倍达正式设立国际空手道联盟 极真会馆,借此有组织的教导极真派空手道。就在设立极真会馆之后,大山倍达开始将极真会带入大成长时期。大山倍达与他亲手调教出来的指导员,非常俐落的展现出极真空手的风格,并且吸收到相当多新门生。
大山倍达会挑选功力有一定程度的指导员,将他们送到日本各地成立支部。而这些被挑选出来的指导员也都能够展现出极真空手的厉害之处,他们通常会在许多公开的场所表演空手道,例如体育馆、学校或是公园。这些表演都能够让新成立的道馆吸收到不少新门生。
不光是在日本,大山倍达也积极的在海外,如美国或巴西成立极真会的支部。
在大山倍达死前,极真会馆已经成为世界上最大的武术团体之一,总计在120个国家设有支部道场,登记有案的会员超过1千万人。
1994年4月26日,71岁的大山倍达因为肺癌而过世。

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发表于 2013-11-26 22:46:03 |显示全部楼层
Masutatsu Oyama (大山 倍達 Ōyama Masutatsu?, July 27th, 1923 – April 26, 1994), more commonly known as Mas Oyama, was a karate master who foundedKyokushinkai Karate, considered the first and most influential style offull contact karate.[1] He was born Choi Yeong-eui (Hangul: 최영의 Hanja: 崔永宜). A Zainichi Korean, he spent most of his life living in Japan and acquired Japanese citizenship in 1964. He is an alumnus of Waseda University in Japan.
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发表于 2013-11-26 22:46:30 |显示全部楼层
Early life[edit]
Oyama was born as Choi Young-Eui (최영의) in Gimje, South Korea, duringJapanese occupation. At a young age he was sent to Manchuria to live on his sister's farm. Oyama began studying martial arts at age 9 from a Korean seasonal worker who was working on the farm. His name was Lee and Oyama said he was his very first teacher. The story of the young Oyama's life is written in his earlier books.
In March 1938, Oyama left for Japan following his brother who enrolled in the Yamanashi Aviation School Imperial Japanese Army aviation school.[2]Sometime during his time in Japan, the Choi Young-Eui chose his Japanese name, Oyama Masutatsu (大山 倍達), which is a transliteration of 'Baedal' (倍達). 'Baedal' was an ancient Korean kingdom known in Japan during Oyama's time as "Ancient Joseon". Oyama was inspired to go to Japan by General Kanji Ishihara who was against the invasion of Asian neighbors (as a consequence, he was ostracized by higher ranks of the Japanese Army), to carve out his future in the heart of the Empire of Japan.
One story of Oyama's youth involves when Lee gave young Oyama a seed which he was to plant; when it sprouted, he was to jump over it one hundred times every day. As the seed grew and became a plant, Oyama later said, "I was able to jump between walls back and forth easily." The writer, Ikki Kajiwara and the publisher of the comics based the story on the life experience Oyama spoke to them about- thus the title became "Karate Baka Ichidai" (Karate Fanatic).
In 1963, Oyama wrote "What is Karate" which became a best seller in the US and sold million copies all over the world. It is still considered the "Bible of Karate" to this day. It was translated into Hungarian, French and English.

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发表于 2013-11-26 22:46:44 |显示全部楼层
Post–World War II[edit]
In 1945 after the war ended, Oyama left the aviation school. He began "Eiwa Karate Research Center" in Suginami ward but closed it quickly because "I soon realized that I was an unwanted Korean. Nobody would rent me a room."[2] He finally found a place to live in Tokyo. This is where he met his future wife whose mother ran a dormitory for university students.
In 1946, Oyama enrolled in Waseda University School of Education to study sports science.
Wanting the best in instruction, he contacted the Shotokan dojo (Karate school) operated by Gigō Funakoshi, the second son of karate master and Shotokan founder Gichin Funakoshi. He became a student, and began his lifelong career in Karate. Feeling like a foreigner in a strange land, he remained isolated and trained in solitude.[2]
Oyama attended Takushoku University in Tokyo and was accepted as a student at the dojo of Gichin Funakoshi. He trained with Funakoshi for two years, then studied Gōjū-ryū karate for several years with Mr. So Nei Chu (소네이쥬, 1907–?),[citation needed] a senior student of the system's founder, Chojun Miyagi. Mr. So was a fellow Korean from Oyama's native province.
Korea had been officially annexed by Japan since 1910. During World War II (1939–1945) there was much unrest throughout Korea. As South Korea began to fight against North Korea over political ideology, Oyama became increasingly distressed. He recounts, "though I was born and bred in Korea, I had unconsciously made myself liberal; I felt repulsion against the strong feudal system of my fatherland, and that was one of the reasons which made me run away from home to Japan."[2] He joined a Korean political organization in Japan to strive for the unification of Korea, but soon was being targeted and harassed by the Japanese police. He then consulted with Mr. So.[2]
Around the time he also went around Tokyo getting in fights with the U.S. Military Police. He later reminisced those times in a television interview, "Itsumitemo Haran Banjyo" (Nihon Television), "I lost many friends during the war- the very morning of their departure as Kamikaze pilots, we had breakfast together and in the evening their seats were empty. After the war ended, I was angry- so I fought as many U.S. military as I could, until my portrait was all over the police station." At this time, Mr. So suggested that Oyama retreat to a lone mountain for solace to train his mind and body. He set out to spend three years on Mt. Minobu in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. Oyama built a shack on the side of the mountain. One of his students named Yashiro accompanied him, but after the rigors of this isolated training, with no modern conveniences, the student snuck away one night, and left Oyama alone. With only monthly visits from a friend in the town of Tateyama in Chiba Prefecture, the loneliness and harsh training became grueling. Oyama began to doubt his decision, so he sent a letter to the man who suggested the retreat. Mr. So replied with encouragement to remain, and suggested that he shave off one eyebrow so that he would not be tempted to come out of the mountain and let anyone see him that way. Oyama remained on the mountain for fourteen months, and returned to Tokyo a much stronger and fiercer Karateka.[2]
Oyama gave great credit to reading "The Book of Five Rings" by Miyamoto Musashi - a famous Japanese swordsman, to change his life completely. He recounts this book as being his only reading material during his mountain training years.
He was forced to leave his mountain retreat after his sponsor had stopped supporting him. Months later, after he had won the Karate Section of Japanese National Martial Arts Championships, he was distraught that he had not reached his original goal to train in the mountains for three years, so he went into solitude again, this time on Mt. Kiyosumi in Chiba Prefecture, Japan and he trained there for 18 months.

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发表于 2013-11-26 22:46:59 |显示全部楼层
Founding Kyokushin[edit]
In 1953 Oyama opened his own karate dojo, named Oyama Dojo, in Tokyo but continued to travel around Japan and the world giving martial arts demonstrations, including the fighting and killing of live bulls with his bare hand.[3] His dojo was first located outside in an empty lot but eventually moved into a ballet school in 1956. Oyama's own curriculum soon developed a reputation as a tough, intense, hard hitting but practical style which was finally named Kyokushin, which means 'the search for the ultimate truth,' in a ceremony in 1957. He also developed a reputation for being 'rough' with his students, often injuring them during training sessions. As the reputation of the dojo grew students were attracted to come to train there from inside and outside Japan and the number of students grew. Many of the eventual senior leaders of today's various Kyokushin based organisations began training in the style during this time. In 1964 Oyama moved the dojo into the building that would from then on serve as the Kyokushin home dojo and world headquarters. In connection with this he also formally founded the 'International Karate Organization Kyokushin kaikan' (commonly abbreviated to IKO or IKOK) to organise the many schools that were by then teaching the kyokushin style. In the same year, his dojo received a challenge from Muay Thai (Thai Boxing) practitioners. Oyama, believing that no other style was comparable to his, accepted the challenge and sent three students (Kenji Kurosaki, Tadashi Nakamura, Noboru Ōsawa) to Thailand who won 2 of the 3 fights, thus redeeming the reputation of his karate style.
In 1969, Oyama staged the first All-Japan Full Contact Karate Open Championships which took Japan by storm andTerutomo Yamazaki became the first champion, which have been held every year since. In 1975, the first World Full Contact Karate Open Championships were held in Tokyo. World championships have been held at four-yearly intervals since. After formally establishing Kyokushin-kai, Oyama directed the organization through a period of expansion. Oyama and his staff of hand-picked instructors displayed great ability in marketing the style and gaining new members[citation needed]. Oyama would choose an instructor to open a dojo in another town or city in Japan, whereupon the instructor would move to that town, and, typically demonstrate his karate skills in public places, such as at the civic gymnasium, the local police gym (where many judo students would practice), a local park, or conduct martial arts demonstrations at local festivals or school events. In this way, the instructor would soon gain a few students for his new dojo. After that, word of mouth would spread through the local area until the dojo had a dedicated core of students. Oyama also sent instructors to other countries such as theUnited States, Netherlands, England, Australia and Brazil to spread Kyokushin in the same way. Oyama also promoted Kyokushin by holding The All-Japan Full Contact Karate Open Championships every year and World Full Contact Karate Open Championships once every four years in which anyone could enter from any style.

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